Rated capacity of the cell or battery. The charging and discharging current of a cell is often expressed as a multiple of C. (Example: The 0.1 current for a cell
with a rated capacity of 1.4 Ah is 140 mA). >> Capacity.
A Lead and metal calcium alloy wherein the calcium content is usually lower than 0,10%.
The available quantity of electricity delivered by a battery or cell measured in ampere hours. The capacity is dependent on the battery temperature and the
discharging current. It is therefore important to state not just the capacity, but also the discharging current and temperature (e.g. cold-start capacity in seconds
with cold-test current and at a temperature of 18°C).
Capacity loss, permanent
A decrease in cell capacity in comparison to the level when it was new which cannot be restored by reconditioning. >> Failure.
Capacity loss, temporary
A decrease in cell capacity that can be made good by reconditioning the cell. >> Failure.
The capacity that is typically delivered when used under normal conditions (e.g. 20-hour capacity in Ah, reserve capacity during discharge with 25 A in min).
>> Capacity loss, temporary.
The capacity that can be drawn from a battery with an unspecified charge state (e.g. after a long period of non-use) when discharging with nominal current.
>> Battery case
Manufacturing process used for the plate cell which involves connecting the plate lugs of several electrodes with the same polarity in a connecting strap made of lead alloy.
Parallel lug connection is made to increase the capacity of the cell.
Production of a battery component (e.g. grid) by pouring liquid lead alloy into a casting mould.
The negative electrode at which reduction processes take place in a liquid solution, i.e. where cations (positively charged ions) are precipitated (gain in electrons).
In secondary cells, each of the electrodes can become cathodes depending on the direction of the current. The positive electrode is the cathode when discharging.
The smallest unit of a battery, consisting of a positive and a negative electrode, a separator and the electrolyte. It stores electrical energy and is the basic of every battery
if it is placed into a case and equipped with electrical connectors. The capacity of a cell is determined by its size. The cell voltage, however, depends on the electrochemical
system of the element (>> Electrochemical series). >> Element, electrochemical.
>> Battery case.
Cell temperature, influence
Must not exceed the limits specified for operation and is system-dependent. For example: At -30°C, battery acid with a density of =1.28g/cm³ begins to freeze out
(value determined from experiments on battery acid; the freezing point is far lower in the case of pure sulphuric acid); temperatures above 55°C increase wear and accelerate aging.
>> AGM, >> Gel, >> Maintenance-free battery with fixed electrolyte.
Rechargeable cell (e.g. lead-lead oxide, Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, Li-Ion, Ni-Fe)
Cell which has suffered a reversible drop in capacity due to insufficient charging.
Central gas outlet
Known in the market as the "Kamina" system. A device for centrally drawing off gases formed in the battery via a gas duct (flue) in the battery cover.
A battery is charged by sending from an outside source direct current through it. The direction must be opposite to the flow of the current from the battery.
Charge is the opposite of >> discharge.
Describes the quantity of current in ampere hours which a battery in a defined charge state can accept at a specified temperature and charge voltage within defined period.
>> Efficiency, Faraday.
Remaining capacity (in %) referred to the rated capacity.
The current flowing at the time a battery is being charged. It depends on the charge state, the charging method and the temperature.
Complete path taken by a current of electricity from its source back to its source.
Cold cranking is the discharge current given by the manufacturer. It is emitted by a battery at a temperature of -18°C with a minimum voltage of Ui=7,5 volt for period of 10 seconds,
according to the EN specifications.
A charge following the assembly of formed elements. Its primary purpose is to obtain a thorough mixing of the strong filling acid and the weak electrolyte retained by the elements.
Used only in dry-charge process and to prepare batteries for initial electrical tests.
The quality of transmitting an electric current expressed in terms of reciprocal ohms (mhos or Siemens) per unit cross section and per unit length.
A flexible cable for establishing an electrical connection between the battery and the battery charger or the consumer.
Components connecting the terminals of a cell. Is usually a cast component. >> Cast-on-Strap.
Connector welding machine
Also called through the partition welder: Spot welding of the >> connectors of the cell through the battery case wall.
The relative plasticity or stiffness of a battery >> paste.
Term which is used for the lateral sealing of PE-envelopes by means of a pair of crimping wheels with a special tooth form.
Constant current charging
Constant current charging involves charging with a constant charging current and variable charging voltage.
Constant voltage charging
A charging procedure in which the applied voltage hardly changes regardless of the battery charge state. It is the most frequently used method for closed lead batteries.
>> Battery case.
Formation of batteries which has been manufactured with unformed plates. Such batteries are always shipped with acid (wet). State of the art formation can be as short as
4 hours by charging the batteries in a water bath and with special charging programs.
Special form of wrapping flat positive industrial plates. Last wrap after two glass mat wraps, made with perforated PVC material.
Used for spraying the moulds on >> grid casting machines.
The gradual oxidation of the metallic lead to lead dioxide in the grid of the positive plate.
A component for closing a battery case.
Cover placing machine
Machine for automatic placing the covers onto the battery cases, installed in the >> battery assembly line before the >> heat sealing machine
Cover sealing machine
>> Heat sealing machine
A term used for sealing Polyethylene envelopes or sleeves lateral by using a pair of crimping wheels with a special teeth form.
The apparent density of a paste expressed in terms of grams per cubic centimetre or in grams per cubic inch.
Chemical process applied to the grid plates of lead batteries following pasting. There are essentially 3 stages:
1. Oxidation of residual lead to PbO
2. Formation of the grid/ mass transitional structure
3. Drying of the plate
Conversion from tribase to tetrabase lead sulphate is also possible depending on the temperature profile used for the curing process.
Chamber for the >> curing of positive and negative plates
The flow rate of electricity expressed in terms of amperes. Battery technology only uses direct current.
A structure within the electrode that makes the flow of current between the cell terminals and the active mass possible. >> Grid.
Current per unit of area. Normally expressed in terms of amperes per square centimetre respectively square inch.
Current strength, when used for charging or discharging, is often expressed as a fraction or a multiple of the specified current strength C.
The voltage at an accumulator's terminals just prior to the interruption of the charging current.
Charging followed by discharging, usually repeated at regular intervals.
Cyclical service life
>> Service life, cyclical.
Cylinder casting machine
Machine which cast automatically small lead cylinders from liquid lead.
Used for feeding >> ball mills.